The Center for Chemical Evolution brings together a diverse group of scientists with backgrounds from several disciplines of chemistry and chemical engineering. Our continued research efforts focus on exploring chemical evolution and the chemistry associated with the origins of life. We anticipate that discoveries made within the Center will significantly contribute to this field, as well as to the greater scientific community. Our recent peer-reviewed publications are listed below.

Karunakaran, S. C., Cafferty, B. J., Jain, K. C., Schuster, B. J., Hud, N. V. (2020) Reversible transformation of a supramolecular hydrogel by redox switching of methylene blue – a non-covalent chain stopper. ACS Omega, 2020, 5, 344-349 (Highlighted as the front cover of the Journal)

Yadav, M., Kumar, R., Krishnamurthy, R. (2020) Chemistry of Abiotic Nucleotide Synthesis, Chem. Rev.

Pasek, M.A.  2020.  Thermodynamics of Prebiotic Phosphorylation.  Chemical Reviews, Accepted (

Pasek, M.A.  2020.  Plume sample modification at icy moons: implications for biosignatures.  Frontiers in Astronomy and Space Science, (

Omran, A., and Pasek, M.A. 2020.  4  Life, 10 (4), 36.  Accepted

Ledbetter, M. P., Craig, J. M., Karadeema, R. J., Noakes, M. T., Kim, H. C., Abell, S. J., Huang, J. R., Anderson, B. A., Krishnamurthy, R., and Gundlach, J. H. (2020) Nanopore Sequencing of an Expanded Genetic Alphabet Reveals High-Fidelity Replication of a Predominantly Hydrophobic Unnatural Base Pair, Journal of the American Chemical Society 142, 2110-2114.

Lago, J.L., Burcar, B.T., Hud, N.V., Febrian, R., Mehta, C., Bracher, P.J., Atlas, Z.D., and Pasek, M.A., 2020.  The prebiotic provenance of semi-aqueous solvents.  Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres, Accepted.  DOI: 10.1007/s11084-020-09595-9

Krishnamurthy, R. (2020) Chemical Origins of Life: Its Engagement with Society, Trends in Chemistry.

Gately, M., Wong, S., Peoples, J., Galamay, D., Delgado, G., Weber, A. L., and Campbell, T. (2020) Synthesis and base-pairing properties of pyrazine nucleic acids, Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids, 1-26.

Frenkel-Pinter, M., Samanta, M., Ashkenasy, G., and Leman, L. J. (2020) Prebiotic Peptides: Molecular Hubs in the Origin of Life, Chemical Reviews.

Febrian, R.; Ona, W.J.; Araneda, J.F.; Riegel, S.D.; Bracher, P.J. “Benchtop NMR Spectroscopy of Prebiotically-Relevant Peptide Reactions Enabled by Salt-Induced Chemical Shift Dispersion.” ACS Earth Space Chem. 2020, 4, 499−505.

Bouza, M., Li, Y., Wu, C., Guo, H., Wang, Z. L., and Fernández, F. M. (2020) Large-Area Triboelectric Nanogenerator Mass Spectrometry: Expanded Coverage, Double-Bond Pinpointing, and Supercharging, Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry 31, 727-734.

Yadav, M., and Krishnamurthy, R. (2019) Bis(dimethylamino)phosphorodiamidate: A Reagent for the Regioselective Cyclophosphorylation of cis-Diols Enabling One-Step Access to High-Value Target Cyclophosphates, Org Lett 21, 7400-7404.

Sun, Y., Frenkel-Pinter, M., Liotta, C. L., and Grover, M. A. (2019) The pH dependent mechanisms of non-enzymatic peptide bond cleavage reactions, Phys Chem Chem Phys 22, 107-113. DOI: 10.1039/C9CP05240B

Schaible, M. J., Pinto, H. P., McKee, A. D., Leszczynski, J., and Orlando, T. M. (2019) Characterization and Simulation of Natural Pyrite Surfaces: A Combined Experimental and Theoretical Study, J Phys Chem C 123, 26397-26405.

McKenna, K. R., Li, L., Baker, A. G., Ujma, J., Krishnamurthy, R., Liotta, C. L., and Fernandez, F. M. (2019) Carbohydrate isomer resolution via multi-site derivatization cyclic ion mobility-mass spectrometry, Analyst 144, 7220-7226. DOI: 10.1039/C9AN01584A

McKee, A. D., Schaible, M. J., Rosenberg, P. A., Kundu, S., and Orlando, T. M. (2019) Low energy secondary electron induced damage of condensed nucleotides, J Chem Phys 150.

Li, Z., Li, L., McKenna, K. R., Schmidt, M., Pollet, P., Gelbaum, L., Fernandez, F. M., Krishnamurthy, R., and Liotta, C. L. (2019) The Oligomerization of Glucose Under Plausible Prebiotic Conditions, Origins Life Evol B.

Kumar, R., Springsteen, G., and Krishnamurthy, R. (2019) Synthesis of 2-Thioorotidine and Comparison of Its Unusual Instability with Its Canonical Pyrimidine Counterparts, J Org Chem 84, 14427-14435.

Grover, M. A., Hsieh, M. C., and Lynn, D. G. (2019) Systems Analysis for Peptide Systems Chemistry, Life (Basel) 9.

Frenkel-Pinter, M., Haynes, J. W., Martin, C., Petrov, A. S., Burcar, B. T., Krishnamurthy, R., Hud, N. V., Leman, L. J., and Williams, L. D. (2019) Selective incorporation of proteinaceous over nonproteinaceous cationic amino acids in model prebiotic oligomerization reactions, P Natl Acad Sci USA 116, 16338-16346.

Castaneda, A. D., Li, Z., Joo, T., Benham, K., Burcar, B. T., Krishnamurthy, R., Liotta, C. L., Ng, N. L., and Orlando, T. M. (2019) Prebiotic Phosphorylation of Uridine using Diamidophosphate in Aerosols, Sci Rep-Uk 9.

Campbell, T.D.; Febrian, R.; McCarthy, J.T.; Kleinschmidt, H.E.; Forsythe, J.G.; Bracher, P.J. “Prebiotic Condensation Through Wet–Dry Cycling Regulated by Deliquescence.” Nat. Commun. 2019, 10, No. 4508. DOI: 10.1038/s41467-019-11834.

Campbell, T. D., Febrian, R., Kleinschmidt, H. E., Smith, K. A., and Bracher, P. J. (2019) Quantitative Analysis of Glycine Oligomerization by Ion-Pair Chromatography, Acs Omega 4, 12745-12752.

Burcar, B., Castaneda, A., Lago, J., Daniel, M., Pasek, M. A., Hud, N. V., Orlando, T. M., and Menor-Salv?n, C. (2019) A Stark Contrast to Modern Earth: Phosphate Mineral Transformation and Nucleoside Phosphorylation in an Iron- and Cyanide-Rich Early Earth Scenario, Angew Chem Int Edit 58, 16981-16987.

 Alenaizan, A., Burns, L. A., and Sherrill, C. D. (2019) Python implementation of the restrained electrostatic potential charge model, International Journal of Quantum Chemistry.

Pasek, M. (2019) A role for phosphorus redox in emerging and modern biochemistry. Current opinion in chemical biology 49, 53-58

Pasek, M. A. (2019) Phosphorus volatility in the early Solar nebula. Icarus 317, 59-65

Karunakaran, S., Cafferty, B., Pelaez-Fernandez, M., Neselu, K., Schmidt-Krey, I., Fernandez-Nieves, A., Schuster, G., and Hud, N. (2018) Exquisite regulation of supramolecular equilibrium polymers in water: Chain stoppers control length, polydispersity and viscoelasticity. Polymer Chemistry

Menor-Salván, C. (2018) From the Dawn of Organic Chemistry to Astrobiology: Urea as a Foundational Component in the Origin of Nucleobases and Nucleotides. in Prebiotic Chemistry and Chemical Evolution of Nucleic Acids, Springer. pp 85-142.

Ward, G., Liotta, C. L., Krishnamurthy, R., and France, S. (2018) Base-Mediated Cascade Aldol Addition and Fragmentation Reactions of Dihydroxyfumaric Acid and Aromatic Aldehydes: Controlling Chemodivergence via Choice of Base, Solvent, and Substituents. The Journal of organic chemistry

Bernier, M. C., Li, A., Winalski, L., Zi, Y., Li, Y., Caillet, C., Newton, P., Wang, Z. L., and Fernández, F. M. (2018) Triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) mass spectrometry of falsified antimalarials. Rapid communications in mass spectrometry 32, 1585-1590

Cafferty, B. J., Fialho, D. M., and Hud, N. V. (2018) Searching for Possible Ancestors of RNA: The Self-Assembly Hypothesis for the Origin of Proto-RNA. in Prebiotic Chemistry and Chemical Evolution of Nucleic Acids, Springer. pp 143-174.

Efthymiou, T., Gavette, J., Stoop, M., De Riccardis, F., Froeyen, M., Herdewyn, P., and Krishnamurthy, R. (2018) Chimeric XNA‐An Unconventional Design for Orthogonal Informational Systems. Chemistry–A European Journal

McKee, A. D., Solano, M., Saydjari, A., Bennett, C. J., Hud, N. V., and Orlando, T. M. (2018) A possible path to prebiotic peptides involving silica and hydroxy acid‐mediated amide bond formation. ChemBioChem (19), 1913-1917

Blair, S. L., Ng, N. L., Zambrzycki, S. C., Li, A., and Fernández, F. M. (2018) Aerosol Vacuum-Assisted Plasma Ionization (Aero-VaPI) Coupled to Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry. Journal of The American Society for Mass Spectrometry (29), 635-639.

Campbell, T. D., Hart, C. A., Febrian, R., Cheneler, M. L., and Bracher, P. J. (2018) The opposite effect of K+ and Na+ on the hydrolysis of linear and cyclic dipeptides. Tetrahedron Letters (59), 2264-2267. 

English, S. L., and Forsythe, J. G. (2018) MALDI‐TOF Mass Spectrometry of Model Prebiotic Peptides: Optimization of Sample Preparation. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry.

Fialho, D. M., Clarke, K. C., Moore, M. K., Schuster, G. B., Krishnamurthy, R., and Hud, N. V. (2018) Glycosylation of a model proto-RNA nucleobase with non-ribose sugars: implications for the prebiotic synthesis of nucleosides. Organic & biomolecular chemistry (16), 1263-1271.

Forsythe, J. G., English, S. L., Simoneaux, R. E., and Weber, A. L. (2018) Synthesis of β-Peptide Standards for Use in Model Prebiotic Reactions. Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres (48), 201-211.

Herschy, B., Chang, S. J., Blake, R., Lepland, A., Abbott-Lyon, H., Sampson, J., Atlas, Z., Kee, T. P., and Pasek, M. A. (2018) Archean phosphorus liberation induced by iron redox geochemistry. Nature communications (9), 1346.

Krishnamurthy, R. (2018) Life's Biological Chemistry: A Destiny or Destination Starting from Prebiotic Chemistry? Chemistry–A European Journal .

Li, A., Paine, M. R., Zambrzycki, S., Stryffeler, R. B., Wu, J., Bouza, M., Huckaby, J., Chang, C.-Y., Kumar, M., and Mukhija, P. (2018) Robotic Surface Analysis Mass Spectrometry (RoSA-MS) of Three-Dimensional Objects. Analytical chemistry (90), 3981-3986.

Li, L., McKenna, K. R., Li, Z., Yadav, M., Krishnamurthy, R., Liotta, C., and Fernandez, F. (2018) Rapid Resolution of Carbohydrate Isomers via Multi-site Derivatization Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry. Analyst (143), 949-955.

Sirianni, D. A., Alenaizan, A., Cheney, D. L., and Sherrill, C. D. (2018) Assessment of Density Functional Methods for Geometry Optimization of Bimolecular van der Waals Complexes. Journal of chemical theory and computation (14), 3004-3013. 

Smith, D. G., Burns, L. A., Sirianni, D. A., Nascimento, D. R., Kumar, A., James, A. M., Schriber, J. B., Zhang, T., Zhang, B., Abbott, A. S., Lechner, M. H., Cunha, L. A., Heide, A. G., Waldrop, J. M., Takeshita, T. Y., Alenaizan, A., Neuhauser, D., King, R. A., Simmonett, A. C., Turney, J. M., Schaefer, H. F., Evangelista, F. A., DePrince, A. E., Crawford, T. D., Patkowski, K., and Sherrill, C. D. (2018) Psi4NumPy: An Interactive Quantum Chemistry Programming Environment for Reference Implementations and Rapid Development. Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation (14), 3504-3511.

Springsteen, G., Yerabolu, J. R., Nelson, J., Rhea, C. J., and Krishnamurthy, R. (2018) Linked cycles of oxidative decarboxylation of glyoxylate as protometabolic analogs of the citric acid cycle. Nature communications (9), 91.

Yadav, M., Liotta, C. L., and Krishnamurthy, R. (2018) Effect of temperature modulations on TEMPO-mediated regioselective oxidation of unprotected carbohydrates and nucleosides. Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters (28), 2759-2765.

Clendinen, C. S., Monge, M. E., and Fernández, F. M. (2017) Ambient mass spectrometry in metabolomics. Analyst (142), 3101-3117. 

Forsythe, J. G., Petrov, A. S., Millar, W. C., Yu, S.-S., Krishnamurthy, R., Grover, M. A., Hud, N. V., and Fernández, F. M. (2017) Surveying the sequence diversity of model prebiotic peptides by mass spectrometry. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (114), E7652-E7659.

Gull, M., Cafferty, B. J., Hud, N. V., and Pasek, M. A. (2017) Silicate-Promoted Phosphorylation of Glycerol in Non-Aqueous Solvents: A Prebiotically Plausible Route to Organophosphates. Life (7), 29.

Keelor, J. D., Zambrzycki, S., Li, A., Clowers, B. H., and Fernández, F. M. (2017) Atmospheric Pressure Drift Tube Ion Mobility–Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry: Initial Performance Characterization. Analytical chemistry (89), 11301-11309.

Paine, M. R., Kooijman, P. C., Fisher, G. L., Heeren, R. M., Fernández, F. M., and Ellis, S. R. (2017) Visualizing molecular distributions for biomaterials applications with mass spectrometry imaging: a review. Journal of Materials Chemistry B (5), 7444-7460.

Pasek, M. A. (2017) Schreibersite on the early Earth: scenarios for prebiotic phosphorylation. Geoscience Frontiers (8), 329-335.

Pasek, M. A., Gull, M., and Herschy, B. (2017) Phosphorylation on the early earth. Chemical Geology.

Pasek, M. A., and Pasek, V. D. (2017) The forensics of fulgurite formation. Mineralogy and Petrology, 1-14.

Qasim, D., Vlasak, L., Pital, A., Beckman, T., Mutanda, N., and Abbott-Lyon, H. (2017) Adsorption of Water, Methanol, and Formic Acid on Fe2NiP, a Meteoritic Mineral Analogue. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C (121), 13645-13654.

Yu, S.-S., Solano, M. D., Blanchard, M. K., Soper-Hopper, M. T., Krishnamurthy, R., Fernández, F. M., Hud, N. V., Schork, F. J., and Grover, M. A. (2017) Elongation of Model Prebiotic Proto-Peptides by Continuous Monomer Feeding. Macromolecules (50), 9286-9294.

Li, A., Zi, Y., Guo, H., Wang, Z. L., & Fernández, F. M. (2017). Triboelectric nanogenerators for sensitive nano-coulomb molecular mass spectrometry. Nature Nanotechnology.

He, C., Gállego, I., Laughlin, B., Grover, M. A., & Hud, N. V. (2017). A viscous solvent enables information transfer from gene-length nucleic acids in a model prebiotic replication cycle. Nature Chemistry (9) 4, 318-324.

Mannion, P., Zhen, T., Case, N., & Schork, F. J. (2017). Application of Polymer Reaction Modeling to Nonenzymatic Polynucleotide Replication. Macromolecular Reaction Engineering, 11(1).

Pasek, M. A. (2017). Schreibersite on the early earth: scenarios for prebiotic phosphorylation. Geoscience Frontiers, 8(2), 329-335.

Rice, G. B., Yerabolu, J. R., Krishnamurthy, R., & Springsteen, G. (2017). The Abiotic Oxidation of Organic Acids to Malonate. Synlett, 28(01), 98-102.

Benham, K., Hodyss, R., Fernández, F. M., & Orlando, T. M. (2016). Laser-Induced Acoustic Desorption Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization via VUV-Generating Microplasmas. Journal of The American Society for Mass Spectrometry, 27(11), 1805-1812.

Mohammed, F. S., Chen, K., Mojica, M., Conley, M., Napoline, J. W., Butch, C., Pollet, P., Krishnamurthy, R., & Liotta, C. L. (2017). A Plausible Prebiotic Origin of Glyoxylate: Nonenzymatic Transamination Reactions of Glycine with Formaldehyde. Synlett, 28(01), 93-97.

Burcar, B., Pasek, M., Gull, M., Cafferty, B. J., Velasco, F., Hud, N. V., & Menor‐Salván, C. (2016). Darwin's Warm Little Pond: A One‐Pot Reaction for Prebiotic Phosphorylation and the Mobilization of Phosphate from Minerals in a Urea‐Based Solvent. Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 55(42), 13249-13253.

Gavette, J. V., Stoop, M., Hud, N. V., & Krishnamurthy, R. (2016). RNA–DNA Chimeras in the Context of an RNA World Transition to an RNA/DNA World. Angewandte Chemie, 128(42), 13398-13403.

Yu, S. S., Krishnamurthy, R., Fernández, F. M., Hud, N. V., Schork, F. J., & Grover, M. A. (2016). Kinetics of prebiotic depsipeptide formation from the ester–amide exchange reaction. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 18(41), 28441-28450.

Hud, N. V. (2017). Our Odyssey to Find a Plausible Prebiotic Path to RNA: The First Twenty Years. Synlett, 28(01), 36-55.

Li, C., Cafferty, B. J., Karunakaran, S. C., Schuster, G. B., & Hud, N. V. (2016). Formation of supramolecular assemblies and liquid crystals by purine nucleobases and cyanuric acid in water: implications for the possible origins of RNA. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 18(30), 20091-20096.

Raggi, L., Bada, J. L., & Lazcano, A. (2016). On the lack of evolutionary continuity between prebiotic peptides and extant enzymes. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. 10.1039/C6CP00793G

Cafferty, B. J., Musetti, C., Kim, K., Horowitz, E. D., Krishnamurthy, R., & Hud, N. V. (2016). Small molecule-mediated duplex formation of nucleic acids with ‘incompatible’ backbones. Chemical Communications, 52(31), 5436-5439. 10.1039/C6CC00779A

La Cruz, N. L., Qasim, D., Abbott-Lyon, H., Pirim, C., McKee, A. D., Orlando, T., ... & Pasek, M. A. (2016). The evolution of the surface of the mineral schreibersite in prebiotic chemistry. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics.

Cafferty, B. J., Fialho, D. M., Khanam, J., Krishnamurthy, R., & Hud, N. V. (2016). Spontaneous formation and base pairing of plausible prebiotic nucleotides in water. Nature Communications, 7.

Bernier, M. C., Alberici, R. M., Keelor, J. D., Dwivedi, P., Zambrzycki, S. C., Wallace, W. T., ... & Macatangay, A. (2016). Microplasma Ionization of Volatile Organics for Improving Air/Water Monitoring Systems On-Board the International Space Station. Journal of The American Society for Mass Spectrometry, 1-8.

Butch, C. J., Wang, J., Gu, J., Vindas, R., Crowe, J., Pollet, P., ... & Liotta, C. L. (2016). pH‐controlled reaction divergence of decarboxylation versus fragmentation in reactions of dihydroxyfumarate with glyoxylate and formaldehyde: parallels to biological pathways. Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry.

Li, S., Mehta, A. K., Sidorov, A. N., Orlando, T. M., Jiang, Z., Anthony, N. R., & Lynn, D. G. (2016). Design of Asymmetric Peptide Bilayer Membranes. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 138(10), 3579-3586.  

Keelor, J. D., Farnsworth, P. B., Weber, A. L., Abbott-Lyon, H., & Fernández, F. M. (2016). Multimodal Vacuum-Assisted Plasma Ion (VaPI) Source with Transmission Mode and Laser Ablation Sampling Capabilities. Journal of The American Society for Mass Spectrometry, 27 (5), 897-907.

Kaddi, C. D., Bennett, R. V., Paine, M. R., Banks, M. D., Weber, A. L., Fernández, F. M., & Wang, M. D. (2015). DetectTLC: Automated Reaction Mixture Screening Utilizing Quantitative Mass Spectrometry Image Features. Journal of The American Society for Mass Spectrometry, 27(2) 359-365.

Pasek, M., Herschy, B., & Kee, T. P. (2015). Phosphorus: a Case for Mineral-Organic Reactions in Prebiotic Chemistry. Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres, 1-12.

Grover, M. A., He, C. Y., Hsieh, M. C., & Yu, S. S. (2015). A Chemical Engineering Perspective on the Origins of Life. Processes, 3(2), 309-338.

Pirim, C., Gann, R. D., McLain, J. L., & Orlando, T. M. (2015). Electron-molecule chemistry and charging processes on organic ices and Titan’s icy aerosol surrogates. Icarus, 258, 109-119.

Clairmont, R. M., Bommarius, A. S., & Weber, A. L. (2015). Imidazolium Catalysts Formed by an Iterative Synthetic Process as a Model System for Chemical Evolution. Journal of molecular evolution, 81(1-2), 1-9.

Forsythe, J. G., Petrov, A. S., Walker, C. A., Allen, S. J., Pellissier, J. S., Bush, M. F., & Fernández, F. M. (2015). Collision cross section calibrants for negative ion mode traveling wave ion mobility-mass spectrometry. Analyst.

Diez-Martinez, A., Kim, E. K., & Krishnamurthy, R. (2015). Hydrogen-Bonding Complexes of 5-Azauracil and Uracil Derivatives in Organic Medium. The Journal of organic chemistry, 80(14), 7066-7075.

Cafferty, B. J., & Hud, N. V. (2015). Was a Pyrimidine‐Pyrimidine Base Pair the Ancestor of Watson‐Crick Base Pairs? Insights from a Systematic Approach to the Origin of RNA. Israel Journal of Chemistry.

Smith, J. E., Liang, C., Tseng, M., Li, N., Li, S., Mowles, A. K., & Lynn, D. G. (2015). Defining the Dynamic Conformational Networks of Cross‐β Peptide Assembly. Israel Journal of Chemistry.

Gállego, I., Grover, M. A., & Hud, N. V. (2015). Folding and Imaging of DNA Nanostructures in Anhydrous and Hydrated Deep‐Eutectic Solvents. Angewandte Chemie International Edition.

Forsythe, J. G., Yu, S. S., Mamajanov, I., Grover, M. A., Krishnamurthy, R., Fernández, F. M., & Hud, N. V. (2015). Ester‐Mediated Amide Bond Formation Driven by Wet–Dry Cycles: A Possible Path to Polypeptides on the Prebiotic Earth. Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 54(34), 9871-9875.

Pasek, M. A. (2015). Phosphorus as a lunar volatile. <em>Icarus</em>.

Efthymiou, T. & Krishnamurthy, R. (2015). Microwave-Assisted Phosphitylation of DNA and RNA Nucleosides and Their Analogs. <em>Current Protocols Nucleic Acid Chemistry</em>. 60:2.19.1-2.19.20.
http://dx.doi. 10.1002/0471142700.nc0219s60

Krishnamurthy, R. (2015). On the Emergence of RNA. <em>Israel Journal of Chemistry</em>, 0000(00), 1-15

Curtis, M., Keelor, J. D., Jones, C. M., Pittman, J. J., Jones, P. R., Sparkman, O. D., & Fernández, F. M. (2015). Schlieren visualization of fluid dynamics effects in direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry. <em>Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry</em>, 29(5), 431-439.

Basaran, I., Wang, X., Alamgir, A., Wang, J., Haque, S. A., Zhang, Y., Powell, M. R., Leszcynski, J., & Hossain, M. A. (2015). Synthesis and anion binding properties of a urea-based molecular cleft. <em>Tetrahedron Letters</em>, 56(5), 657-661.

Parker, E. T., Zhou, M., Burton, A. S., Glavin, D. P., Dworkin, J. P., Krishnamurthy, R., Fernández, F. M. & Bada, J. L. (2014). A plausible simultaneous synthesis of amino acids and simple peptides on the primordial Earth. <em>Angewandte Chemie</em>, 126(31), 8270-8274.

Li, S., Sidorov, A. N., Mehta, A. K., Bisignano, A. J., Das, D., Childers, W. S., Schuler, E., Jiang, Z., Orlando, T.M., Berland, K., & Lynn, D. G. (2014). Neurofibrillar Tangle Surrogates: Histone H1 Binding to Patterned Phosphotyrosine Peptide Nanotubes. <em>Biochemistry</em>, 53(26), 4225-4227.

Krishnamurthy, R. (2014). RNA as an Emergent Entity: An Understanding Gained Through Studying its Nonfunctional Alternatives. <em>Synlett</em>, 25(11), 1511-1517.

Meher, G., Efthymiou, T., Stoop, M., & Krishnamurthy, R. (2014). Microwave-assisted preparation of nucleoside-phosphoramidites. <em>Chemical Communications</em>, 50(56), 7463-7465.

Hernandez, A. F., Wagner, M. J., & Grover, M. A. (2014). Model identification of a template-directed peptide network for optimization in a continuous reactor. <em>Chemical Communications</em>, 50(29), 3849-3851.

Guo, Q., Mehta, A. K., Grover, M. A., Chen, W., Lynn, D. G., & Chen, Z. (2014). Shape selection and multi-stability in helical ribbons. <em>Applied Physics Letters</em>, 104(21), 211901.

Kim, K., Punna, V., Karri, P., & Krishnamurthy, R. (2014). Synthesis of phosphoramidites of isoGNA, an isomer of glycerol nucleic acid. Beilstein <em>Journal of Organic Chemistry</em>, 10(1), 2131-2138.

Gull, M., Zhou, M., Fernández, F. M., & Pasek, M. A. (2014). Prebiotic phosphate ester syntheses in a deep eutectic solvent. <em>Journal of Molecular Evolution</em>, 78(2), 109-117.

Cafferty, B. J., Avirah, R. R., Schuster, G. B., & Hud, N. V. (2014). Ultra-sensitive pH control of supramolecular polymers and hydrogels: pKa matching of biomimetic monomers. <em>Chemical Science</em>, 5(12), 4681-4686.

Smith, J. E., Mowles, A. K., Mehta, A. K., & Lynn, D. G. (2014). Looked at Life from Both Sides Now. <em>Life</em>, 4(4), 887-902.

Pasek, M. A., Sampson, J. M., & Atlas, Z. (2014). Redox chemistry in the phosphorus biogeochemical cycle. <em>Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences</em>, 111(43), 15468-15473.

Newton, P. N., Tabernero, P., Dwivedi, P., Culzoni, M. J., Monge, M. E., Swamidoss, I., Green, M.D., Jähnke, R., Santos de Oliviera, S., Simano, J., White, N.J., & Fernández, F. M. (2014). Falsified medicines in Africa: all talk, no action. <em>The Lancet Global Health</em>, 2(9), e509-e510. (Access to CCE instrumentation was acknowledged in this high profile study)

Monge, M. E., Dwivedi, P., Zhou, M., Payne, M., Harris, C., House, B., Juggins, Y., Cizmarik, P., Newton, P.N., Fernández, F.M., & Jenkins, D. (2014). A tiered analytical approach for investigating poor quality emergency contraceptives.<em> PloS one </em>, 9(4), e95353. (Access to CCE instrumentation was acknowledged in this high profile study) 

Reininger, C., Woodfield, K., Keelor, J. D., Kaylor, A., Fernández, F. M., & Farnsworth, P. B. (2014). Absolute number densities of helium metastable atoms determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy in helium plasma-based discharges used as ambient desorption/ionization sources for mass spectrometry. <em> Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy </em>, 100, 98-104.

Symonds, J. M., Gann, R. N., Fernández, F. M., & Orlando, T. M. (2014). Microplasma Discharge Vacuum Ultraviolet Photoionization Source for Atmospheric Pressure Ionization Mass Spectrometry. <em> Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry </em>, 25(9), 1557-1564.

Keelor, J. D., Dwivedi, P., & Fernández, F. M. (2014). An Effective Approach for Coupling Direct Analysis in Real Time with Atmospheric Pressure Drift Tube Ion Mobility Spectrometry. <em>Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry</em>, 25(9), 1538-1548.

Cleaves, H. J., Neish, C., Callahan, M. P., Parker, E., Fernández, F. M., & Dworkin, J. P. (2014). Amino acids generated from hydrated Titan tholins: Comparison with Miller–Urey electric discharge products. <em>Icarus</em>, 237, 182-189.

Räsänen, R. M., Dwivedi, P., Fernández, F. M., & Kauppila, T. J. (2014). Desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization and direct analysis in real time coupled with travelling wave ion mobility mass spectrometry. <em> Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry </em>, 28(21), 2325-2336.

Cafferty, B. J., & Hud, N. V. (2014). Abiotic synthesis of RNA in water: a common goal of prebiotic chemistry and bottom-up synthetic biology. <em>Current Opinion in Chemical Biology</em>, 22, 146-157.

Gull, M. (2014). Prebiotic Phosphorylation Reactions on the Early Earth. <em>Challenges</em>, 5(2), 193-212.

Pirim, C., Pasek, M. A., Sokolov, D. A., Sidorov, A. N., Gann, R. D., & Orlando, T. M. (2014). Investigation of schreibersite and intrinsic oxidation products from Sikhote-Alin, Seymchan, and Odessa meteorites and Fe3P and Fe2NiP synthetic surrogates. <em>Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta</em>, 140, 259-274.

Hernandez, A. F., Wagner, M. J., & Grover, M. A. (2014). Model identification of a template-directed peptide network for optimization in a continuous reactor. <em>Chemical Communications</em>, 50(29), 3849-3851.

Bennett, R. V., Morzan, E. M., Huckaby, J. O., Monge, M. E., Christensen, H. I., & Fernández, F. M. (2014). Robotic plasma probe ionization mass spectrometry (RoPPI-MS) of non-planar surfaces. <em>Analyst</em>, 139(11), 2658-2662.

Portella, G., Germann, M. W., Hud, N.V., & Orozco, M. (2014). MD and NMR Analyses of Choline and TMA Binding to Duplex DNA: On the Origins of Aberrant Sequence-Dependent Stability by Alkyl Cations in Aqueous and Water-Free Solvents. <em>Journal of the American Chemical Society</em>, 136(8), 3075-3086. 

Dawley, M. M., Pirim, C. , & Orlando, T. M. (2014). Radiation Processing of Formamide and Formamide: Water Ices on Silicate Grain Analog. <em> The Journal of Physical Chemistry A</em>, 118(7), 1228-1236. 

Dawley, M. M., Pirim, C., & Orlando, T. M. (2014). Thermal Processing of Formamide Ices on Silicate Grain Analogue. <em>The Journal of Physical Chemistry A</em>, 118(7), 1220-1227. 

Mamajanov, I., MacDonald, P. J., Ying, J., Duncanson, D. M., Dowdy, G. R., Walker, C. A., Engelhart, A. E., Fernández, F. M., Grover, M. A., Hud, N. V., & Schork, F. J. (2014). Ester Formation and Hydrolysis during Wet–Dry Cycles: Generation of Far-from-Equilibrium Polymers in a Model Prebiotic Reaction. <em>Macromolecules</em>, 47(4), 1334-1343. 

Parker, E. T., Cleaves, H.J., Burton, A. S., Glavin, D. P., Dworkin, J. P., Zhou, M., Bada, J. L., & Fernández, F. M. (2013). Conducting Miller-Urey Experiments. <em>Journal of Visualized Experiments</em>, 83, 1-13. 

Chen, M.C., Cafferty, B.J., Mamajanov, I., Gallego, I., Khanam, J., Krishnamurthy, R., & Hud, N.V. (2013). Spontaneous Prebiotic Formation of a β-Ribofuranoside That Self-Assembles with a Complementary Heterocycle. <em>Journal of the American Chemical Society</em>, 136(15), 5640-5646. 

Stoop, M., Meher, G., Karri, P., & Krishnamurthy, R. (2013). Chemical Etiology of Nucleic Acid Structure: The Pentulofuranosyl Oligonucleotide Systems: The (1' -> 3')-beta-L-Ribulo, (4' -> 3')-alpha-L-Xylulo, and (1' -> 3')-alpha-L-Xylulo Nucleic Acids. <em>Chemistry: A European Journal</em>, 19 (45), 15336-15345. 

Butch, C., Cope, E.D., Pollet, P., Gelbaum, L., Krishnamurthy, R., & Liotta, C.L., (2013). Production of Tartrates by Cyanide-Mediated Dimerization of Glyoxylate: A Potential Abiotic Pathway to the Citric Acid Cycle. <em>Journal of the American Chemical Society</em>, 135 (36), 13440-13445. 

Pasek, M.A., Harnmeijer, J. P., Buick, R., Gull, M., & Atlas, Z. (2013). Evidence for reactive reduced phosphorus species in the early Archean ocean. <em>Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA</em>, 110 (25), 10089-94. 

Karri, P., Punna, V., Kim, K., & Krishnamurthy, R. (2013). Base-pairing properties of isoGNA. <em>Angewandte Chemie, International Edition</em, 52 (22), 5840-5844. 

Cleaves, H.J. (2013). <em>Prebiotic Chemistry: Geochemical Context and Reaction Screening</em>. Life, 3 (2), 331-345. 

Gull, M. & Pasek M. A. (2013). Is Struvite a Prebiotic Mineral? <em>Life</em>, 3(2), 321-330.

Wang, J., Gu, J., Nguyen, M. T., Springsteen, G., & Leszczynski, J. (2013). From Formamide to Adenine: A Self-Catalytic Mechanism for an Abiotic Approach. <em>The Journal of Physical Chemistry B</em>, 117(45), 14039-14045.

Wang, J., Gu, J., Nguyen, M. T., Springsteen, G., & Leszczynski, J. (2013). From Formamide to Purine: A Self-Catalyzed Reaction Pathway Provides a Feasible Mechanism for the Entire Process. <em>The Journal of Physical Chemistry B</em>, 117(32), 9333-9342.

Hud, N.V., Cafferty, B.J., Krishnamurthy, R., & Williams, L.D. (2013). The Origin of RNA and “My Grandfather’s Axe”. <em>Chemistry & Biology</em>, 20(4), 466-474. 

Monge, M. E., Harris, G.A., Dwivedi, P., & Fernández, F.M. (2013). Mass Spectrometry: Recent Advances in Direct Open Air Surface Sampling/Ionization. <em>Chemical Reviews</em>, 113 (4), 2269-2308. 

Cafferty, B.J., Gállego, I., Chen, M.C., Farley, K.I., Eritja R., & Hud, N.V. (2013). Efficient self-assembly in water of long noncovalent polymers by nucleobase analogs. <em>Journal of the American Chemical Society</em>, 135 (7), 2447-2450. 
Wang, J., Gu, J., Nguyen, M.T., Springsteen, G.S., & Leszczynski, J. (2013). From Formamide to Purine: An Energetically Viable Mechanistic Reaction Pathway. <em>Journal of Physical Chemistry B</em>, 117(8), 2314-2320. 

Bennett, R.V., Cleaves, H.J., Davis, J.M., Sokolov, D.A., Orlando, T.M., Bada, J. L., & Fernández, F. M. (2013). Desorption Electrospray Ionization Imaging Mass Spectrometry as a Tool for Investigating Model Prebiotic Reactions on Mineral Surfaces. <em>Analytical Chemistry</em>, 85(3), 1276–1279. 

Bada, J.L. (2013). New insights into prebiotic chemistry from Stanley Miller’s spark discharge experiments. <em>Chemical Society Reviews</em>, 42, 2186-2196. 

Kuruvilla, E., Schuster, G. B., & Hud, N. V. (2013). Enhanced Nonenzymatic Ligation of Homopurine Miniduplexes: Support for Greater Base Stacking in a Pre‐RNA World. <em>ChemBioChem</em>, 14(1), 45-48. 

Goodwin, J. T., Mehta A. K., & Lynn D. G. (2012). Digital and Analog Chemical Evolution. <em>Account of Chemical Research</em>, 4551(12), 2189–2199. 

Krishnamurthy, R. (2012). Role of pKa of Nucleobases in the Origins of Chemical Evolution. <em>Accounts of Chemical Research</em>, 45(12), 2035-2044.
Michalkova S.A., Dawley, M. M., Orlando, T. M., Hill, F. C., & Leszczynski, J. (2012). Theoretical Study of the Roles of Na+ and Water on the Adsorption of Formamide on Kaolinite Surfaces. <em>The Journal of Physical Chemistry C</em>, 116(45), 23992–005. 

Dawley, M. M., Michalkova S.A. Hill, F. C., Leszczynski, J., & Orlando T. M. (2012). Adsorption of Formamide on Kaolinite Surfaces: A Combined Infrared Experimental and Theoretical Study. <em>Journal of Physical Chemistry C</em>, 116(45), 23981-91. 

Cleaves, H. J. (2012). Prebiotic chemistry: What we know, what we don’t. <em>Evolution: Education and Outreach</em>, 5(3), 342-360. 

Ni, R., Childers, W. S., Hardcastle, K. I., Mehta, A. K., & Lynn, D. G. (2012). Remodeling Cross-β Nanotube Surfaces with Peptide/Lipid Chimeras. <em>Angewandte Chemie, International Edition</em>, 51, 6635-6638. 

Lannan, F., Mamajanov, I., & Hud, N.V. (2012). Human Telomere Sequence DNA in Water-Free and High-Viscosity Solvents: G-quadruplex Folding Governed by Kramers Rate Theory, <em>Journal of the American Chemical Society</em>, 134(37), 15324-15330. 

Childers, W. S., Anthony, N. R., Mehta, A. K., Berland, K. M., & Lynn, D. L. (2012). Phase Networks of Cross-β Peptide Assemblies, <em>Langmuir</em>, 28, 6386-6395. 

Engelhart, A.E., Cafferty, B.J., Okafor, C.D., Chen, M.C., Williams, L.D., Lynn, D.G., & Hud, N.V. (2012). Nonenzymatic ligation of DNA with a reversible step and a final linkage that can be used in PCR, <em>ChemBioChem</em>, 13, 1121-1124. 

Walker, S.I., Grover, M.A., & Hud, N.V. (2012). Universal Sequence Replication, Reversible Polymerization and Early Functional Biopolymers: A Model for the Initiation of Prebiotic Sequence Evolution, <em>PLoS ONE</em>, 7, e34166. 

Hudson, J. S., Eberle, J. F., Vachhani, R. H., Rogers, L. C., Wade, J. H., Krishnamurthy, R., & Springsteen, G. (2012).  A unified mechanism for abiotic adenine and purine synthesis in formamide, <em>Angewandte Chemie, International Edition</em>, 51, 5134-5137. 

Sagi, V. N., Punna, V., Hu, F., Meher, G., & Krishnamurthy, R. (2012). Exploratory experiments on the chemistry of the "glyoxylate scenario": formation of ketosugars from dihydroxyfumarate, <em>Journal of the American Chemical Society</em>, 134, 3577. 

Li, X. Y., Hernandez, A. F., Grover, M. A., Hud, N. V., & Lynn, D. G. (2011). Step-Growth Control in Template-Directed Polymerization, <em>Heterocycles</em>, 82, 1477. 

Meher, G. & Krishnamurthy, R. (2011). An expedient synthesis of L-ribulose and derivatives, <em>Carbohydrate Research</em>, 346, 703-707. 

Parker, E. T., Cleaves, H. J., Dworkin, J. P., Glavin, D. P., Callahan, M., Aubrey, A., Lazcano, A., & Bada, J.L. (2011). Primordial synthesis of amines and amino acids in a 1958 Miller H2S-rich spark discharge experiment, <em>Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA</em>, 108, 5526-5531. 

Parker, E. T., Cleaves, H. J., Callahan, M. P., Dworkin, J. P., Glavin, D. P., Lazcano, A., & Bada, J. L. (2011). Prebiotic synthesis of methionine and other sulfur-containing organic compounds on the primitive Earth: a contemporary reassessment based on an unpublished 1958 Stanley Miller experiment, <em>Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres</em>, 41, 201-212. 

Anumukonda, L. N., Young, A., Lynn, D. G., Buckley, R., Warrayat, A., Graves, C. L., Bean, H. D., & Hud, N. V. (2011). Adenine Synthesis in a Model Prebiotic Reaction: Connecting Origin of Life Chemistry with Biology, <em>Journal of Chemical Education</em>, 88, 1698-1701. 

Nguyen, V. S., Abbott, H. L., Dawley, M. M., Orlando, T. M., Leszczynski, J., & Nguyen, M. T. (2011). Theoretical study of formamide decomposition pathways, <em>Journal of Physical Chemistry A</em>, 115, 841-851. 

Michalkova, A., Robinson, T. L., & Leszczynski, J. (2011). Adsorption of thymine and uracil on 1:1 clay mineral surfaces: comprehensive ab initio study on influence of sodium cation and water, <em>Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics</em>, 13, 7862-7881. 

Michalkova, A., Kholod, Y., Kosenkov, D., Gorb, L., & Leszczynski, J., (2011). Origin of Life: Viability of Pyrite Pulled Metabolism in the "Iron-Sulfur World" Theory. Quantum Chemical Assessment, <em>Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta</em>, 75(7), 1933-1941. 

Liang, Y., Lynn, D. G., & Berland, K. M. (2010). Direct observation of nucleation and growth in amyloid self-assembly, <em>Journal of the American Chemical Society</em>, 132, 6306-6308. 

Childers, W. S., Mehta, A. K., Ni, R., Taylor, J. V., & Lynn, D. G. (2010). Peptides organized as bilayer membranes, <em>Angewandte Chemie, International Edition</em>, 49, 4104-4107. 

Barks, H. L., Buckley, R. E., Grieves, G. A., DiMauro, E., Hud, N. V., & Orlando, T. M. (2010). Guanine, adenine and hypoxanthine production in UV-irradiated formamide solutions: Relaxation of the requirements for prebiotic purine nucleobase formation, <em>ChemBioChem</em>, 11, 1240-1243. 

Horowitz, E. D., Engelhart, A. E., Chen, M. C., Quarles, K. A., Smith, M. W., Lynn, D. G., & Hud, N. V. (2010). Intercalation as a means to suppress cyclization and promote polymerization of base-pairing oligonucleotides in a prebiotic world, <em>Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA</em>, 107, 5288-5293. 

Mamajanov, I., Engelhart, A. E., Bean, H., & Hud, N. V. (2010). DNA and RNA in Anhydrous Media: Duplex, Triplex, and G-Quadruplex Secondary Structures in a Deep Eutectic Solvent, <em>Angewandte Chemie, International Edition</em>, 49, 6310-6314. 

Liang, Y., Lynn, D. G., & Berland, K. M. (2010). Direct Observation of Nucleation and Growth in Amyloid Self-Assembly, <em>Journal of the American Chemical Society</em>, 132, 6306-6308.